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03 Mar

Warren Weaver posited in 1948 two forms of complexity: disorganized complexity, and organized complexity.The source of disorganized complexity is the large number of parts in the system of interest, and the lack of correlation between elements in the system. Complexity of an object or system is a relative property.In the case of self-organizing living systems, usefully organized complexity comes from beneficially mutated organisms being selected to survive by their environment for their differential reproductive ability or at least success over inanimate matter or less organized complex organisms. For instance, for many functions (problems), such a computational complexity as time of computation is smaller when multitape Turing machines are used than when Turing machines with one tape are used.A complex system is thereby characterised by its inter-dependencies, whereas a complicated system is characterised by its layers.Complexity is generally used to characterize something with many parts where those parts interact with each other in multiple ways, culminating in a higher order of emergence greater than the sum of its parts.

This means that complex is the opposite of independent, while complicated is the opposite of simple.